The fifth day of Tihar is Bhai Puja.
“Bhai” mean brother in Nepali. This festival is mainly for brothers and sisters.
It is believed that this tradition was started by Yama (the God of death) and his sister Yamuna because of their affection for each other.
In this day, sisters apply sacred Tika on their brother’s forehead and pray to Lord Yama for her brother’s long life and prosperity.
Some of the ethnic groups in Nepal use the Pancha Rangi Tika (Five coloured Tika) for Bhai Tika. First a base, rice flour is applied vertically on the forehead then yellow, green, red, blue and white colour Tika are put on top of this line in a row. But in the Newa culture, we just use rice, vermilion and yogurt, mix them and use that as a Tika.
For this occasion, I had invited my brothers and their families to my apartment and we did the Bhai Tika on my balcony.
This is how I did my Bhai Tika.
Before the Bhai Tika, just like in Mha Puja, the floor was purified by sprinkling water on it, then we made Mandaps in front of a row of seats on the floor where my brothers were sitting. I used a copy of the same Mandap which was designed by AS but this time I printed them in A3 paper. In Nepal the Mandaps are made by hand on the floor using oil, rice flour, vermilion, puffed rice and sometimes beans. The number of the Mandaps needed is three plus the number of people doing the Puja. So I had two big Mandaps, for my brothers. in a row and three smaller Mandaps at the top of the row for the House God (Kuladevata), Yamaraj and Janmaraj, and one crow drawn at the end of the row symbolising Lord Yama.
Beside the three Mandaps at one end, I also had a Sukunda with a candle on it.
Then I put all the sweets and Rotis that I had made or bought as well as some fruits around the Mandap along with the Masala and Sagun.
The Rotis I made at home this year were
- Besana ko ladoo
- Lal Mohan
- Strawberry cup cake
- Chocolate cup cake
(I will post recipes in my next post)
I also bought Soan Papdi.
Then I had trays with fruits like mangoes, peaches, plums, rockmelons, oranges, apples and pears.
I made Masala at home this year with dry coconuts, dry dates, raisins, almonds, pistachio nuts, apricots, dry figs, cashews, cloves, cardamoms, beetle nuts, hard shelled walnuts, palm sugar cubes and lots of Chocolates. I used clear cello wrap and colourful bows to make it look beautiful.
For Sagun, I boiled the eggs, took the shell out and fried them in a pan. I made Bara (lentil cakes, for which I will share recipe later), fried some chicken, fish and cut fresh garlic.
I made Mala out of tinsel and bought Jajanka in a Nepali grocery store. Jajanka is made of many rounds of a white cotton thread forming a circle of about two feet in diameter and tied with a small piece of colourful cloth in order to have no ends. Jajanka symbolizes the integration of the beginning with the end. It is about creation, maintenance and fullness of life. Normally the Mala is supposed to be of Makhmali ful/Supadi ful (Globe Amaranth) as it never dries and always looks fresh.
I also bought T-shirts for both of them.
Bhai tika process
- First I gave Nasala, a few drops of water, in the palm of the right hand of my brothers to throw some into the mouth and rest over the body for purification.
- I worshipped the House-God and Yama’s Mandap with water, rice, flowers, and vermilion powder.
- I gave water, rice, flowers, and vermilion powder to my brothers first to worship the Mandap of the House God and then the crow, then to worship their own Mandaps. The Mandap is used as a medium to present the various offerings to the self.
- Then I put Tika made of vermillion, rice and yogurt on my brothers forehead and gave them flowers to put on their head as a blessing form God. This was followed by Mala and Jajanka around their neck.
- Normally in Nepal, they use Ita (special long threads made using white cloth soaked in mustard oil) but here we used tea light candles instead. I gave both my brothers the candles. They took the candle from my hand, lit them and put them on their Mandap. This light is believed to brighten the inner self and keep evil at bay.
- Then I took some water in an Ankhura (a small pitcher for Puja) filled with oil and water and Dubo in my hand and circled around my brothers three times.
- Then I gave them some rice and flower in their hand. Then I gave trays of Rotis, fruits, Masala, sweets and clothes to them and they had to hold them and keep them from touching the ground. Then I toke some rice and flower in my hand and showered each of them and worshipped the god within them. Only after that could they put the trays down.
- Then my brothers put Tika on my forehead, touched my feet for my blessings and gave me the gifts they had brought for me.
- I gave them the Sagun . For Sagun, you put a plate of egg, Bara, meat and fish in the right hand and yogurt or alcohol in the left hand
- Once everyone finished eating the Sagun, we used Kucho (broom) from top end of the row of Mandaps to the bottom of the row, touching each Mandpa to erase them and conclude our Bhai Tika.
i’m so happy to find that you are Newar! Mother and Father-in-law are Newar but living here in America. This will be my 11 month old daughter’s first bhai tika for her cousins. My inlaws wont tell me and my husband has no sisters so he doesn’t really know what goes into the gifts for the brothers. Can you please tell me what things are essential for bhai tika? I really want to do this right and teach my daughter this half of her culture.
I think Nepali culture is very flexible so you make do what you have.
In Newari culture sagun is the main thing you prepared so if you can please do that.
Sagun is a traditional plate typically consisting of a boiled egg, smoked fish, a bara (https://nepaliaustralian.com/2011/11/10/how-to-make-newari-wo-bara/ ) and fried chicken. If you can’t do , you can just make what you know.
To give to her cousins you could buy some fruits , sweets, chocolates, gifts etc. .
I am not an expert but you could follow the steps in this blog to do the puja.( https://nepaliaustralian.com/2012/11/15/bhai-tika-tihar/#comments)
Good luck and have fun.
Let me know how you went.
Thank you for reading my blog and hope I am of some help.
Great pictures! Looks like you had a nice celebration! I also like your new banner 🙂
This is my first Tihar after wedding so I tried my best to make it special. In Newari, it is called Nhu Ku where the new bride will bring lots of food and gifts for her brothers to celebrate Bhai Tika.
Wow this is all so colorful and traditional. Hope to be able to take part in this festival someday, even though I dont have any brothers.
In Nepal, if you don’t have brothers, you still can take part in this festival with your male cousins.
Thaks so much again for to explaine Tihar. I m learning so many about Nepali culture with you posts.
Can you say me, ist there a difference with the ceremony between the Nepali casts? My boyfriend for exemple is from the Rai cast.
This Tihar he is a little bit sad, because he is separate from his family, he is on the way at the mountains with tourists. I know he is sad that he dont get a tika from his little sister this year.
Do you celebrate our festivals, like christmas too in Australia?
Withal you sari has so a wounderful color, I like that.
Best wishes to Australia
In Nepal there are many ethnic groups and most of them are Hindu. So if they are Hindu, they do celebrate Dashain and Tihar. It may be bit different but they do. I am not very familiar with Rai culture but I know that for Bhai tika they do use colourful Pancha Rangi Tika.
I do celebrate christmas in Australia but it is more like get together with friends and family. I exchange gifts at work with my collegue. At work also we go for few christmas lunch and dinner.
Have you ever worn Sari?
One time I worn a sari, when I stayed in Nepal. Its so difficult to change into a sari, I had got a helpness from an other Nepali woman.
But I haven’t a picture till now…sorry.
I have a Kurta too, and you can to view on a site of my blog here…..
Sometimes I m wearing my Nepali clothes in Germany too. Nepali clothes are allways so colourful….I like that. Here in Germany, the woman wearing black and white chlothes often
I know sari isn’t easy to wear. I am still learning how to wear it with out help. There are so many customs in Nepal for woman. I will love to wear them once and take photos. It will be fun.
I love your Kurta 😀
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